The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) Program comprises a continent-wide cooperative network of hundreds of constant-effort mist netting stations operated each year (> 1,000 stations in total). The MAPS Program was pioneered in 1989 by The Institute for Bird Populations (IBP) to assess and monitor the vital rates and population dynamics of North American landbirds, and inform bird conservation efforts. Each summer dedicated volunteers operate bird-banding stations across North America to collect data on "birds-in-the-hand" representing nearly 200 species (DeSante and Kaschube 2009). About 1.5 million MAPS data records now exist.
The MAPS field protocol (DeSante et al. 2011), coupled with state-of-the-art capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis, provides much needed annual estimates of adult survival, recruitment, residency, and lambda for over 160 landbird species that can be sampled through passive mist-netting during the breeding season (Saracco et al. 2010, 2011). Effort-corrected annual productivity indices are also estimated from capture rates of young and adult birds. Survival and productivity estimates are provided at continent-wide and regional scales on the IBP website, along with station and habitat information. Other performance metrics can also be derived from MAPS data, including age structure, body condition, breeding condition, and breeding phenology. MAPS provides a great opportunity for outreach and education because students and volunteers are often incorporated into a station's operations. MAPS data are submitted to at least two centralized databases (USGS Bird Banding Lab and IBP MAPS database) and have been archived with the Avian Knowledge Network (e.g., Saracco et al. 2009b). Staff are available at IBP to answer questions.
MAPS data are most valuable for making inferences at larger scales (Nott 2011a, b, c). Although capture rates at individual stations are generally too low to provide precise station-specific survival estimates, pooling of data from clusters of six stations has been shown to provide reliable survival estimates at that spatial scale. MAPS productivity estimates (ratio of juvenile to adult captures) represent the local landscape (4-km-radius area surrounding the station). MAPS productivity indices tend to be biased low because of differences in capture probabilities between young and adult birds. MAPS productivity indices for a species can be compared among years and regions, but cannot necessarily be directly related to measures of productivity derived from direct nest monitoring, such as proportion of successful nests. The operation of MAPS stations is also somewhat labor intensive, such that operating six stations on a single landholding can require resources comparable to nest searching and monitoring of selected species on that landholding. Tests designed to compare productivity indices derived from the MAPS protocol to productivity estimates obtained from other methods are needed and are currently underway. Finally, capture rates from passive mist-netting vary by habitat, with rates tending to be lower in mature forest and higher in successional habitats.
Examples of use
Provided management strategies and recommendations for landbirds on a number of US military installations, Northwest National Forests, National Wildlife Refuges, and National Parks.
For more informationKaschube, MAPS Coordinator, (609) 892-0445; email: email@example.com
DeSante, D.F., and D.R. Kaschube. 2009. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) Program 2004, 2005, and 2006 report. Bird Populations 9:86-169.
DeSante, D.F., K.E. Burton, P. Velez, D. Froehlich, and D. Kaschube. 2011. MAPS Manual, 2011 Protocol. The Institute for Bird Populations. http://birdpop.net/pubs/files/desante/2009/554_DeSante2009.pdf
Nott M.P. 2011a. Demographic Monitoring, Modeling, and Management of Landbird Populations in Forests of the Pacific Northwest: An Application of the MAPS Dataset in Stephens, J. L., K. Kreitinger, C. J. Ralph, and M.T. Green, eds. 2011. Informing ecosystem management: science and process for landbird conservation in the western United States.U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Technical Publication, FWS/BTP-R1014-2011, Washington, D.C.
Nott, M. P. 2011b. Landscape modeling of Midwest landbird population performance – online access to regional species-landscape models and data. An access guide to the results of a report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Midwest Region 3. [September 30, 2011]. Contribution Number 424 of The Institute for Bird Populations.
Nott, M. P. 2011c. Landscape modeling of PacificNorthwest landbird population performance – online access to regional species-landscape models and data.An access guide to the results of a report to the U.S. D.A. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region Six and the Bureau of Land Management. [September 30, 2011]. Contribution Number XXX of The Institute for Bird Populations.
Saracco, J. F., D. F. DeSante, and D. R. Kaschube. 2008. Assessing landbird monitoring programs and demographic causes of population trends. Journal of Wildlfe Management 72:1665-1673.
Saracco, J. F., D. F. DeSante, M. P. Nott, and D. R. Kaschube.2009a. Using the MAPS and MoSI programs to monitor landbirds and inform conservation. Pp. 651-658 in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Partners in Flight Conference: Tundra to Tropics (T. D. Rich, C. D. Thompson, D. Demarest, and C. Arizmendi, editors). University of Texas-Pan American Press.
Saracco, J. F., D. F. DeSante, M. P. Nott, W. M. Hochachka, S. Kelling, and D. Fink. 2009b. Integrated bird monitoring and the Avian Knowledge Network: using multiple data resources to understand spatial variation in demographic processes and abundance. Pp. 659-661 in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Partners in Flight Conference: Tundra to Tropics (T. D. Rich, C. D. Thompson, D. Demarest, and C. Arizmendi, editors). University of Texas-Pan American Press.
Saracco, J. F., J. A. Royle, D. F. DeSante, and B. Gardner. 2010. Modeling spatial variation in avian survival and residency probabilities. Ecology 91:1885-1891.
Saracco, J. F., J. A. Royle, D. F. DeSante, and B. Gardner. 2011. Spatial modeling of survival and residency and application to the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship program. Journal of Ornithology. doi: 10.1007/s10336-010-0565-1.