Monitoring demographic rates can be used to quantify measures of productivity and survival, like nesting success, number of nesting attempts, nest parasitism, young produced per successful nest, annual adult and juvenile survival, and seasonal survival (e.g., winter, breeding, post-fledging). These measures of productivity can be used as response variables to evaluate management and conservation actions, or they can be combined to measure population growth rates (λ). These methods usually require more effort than the many abundance protocols, but the results can better answer “why” populations are increasing or decreasing. In most cases, the efforts to monitor demographic rates are focused on specific species within a defined area (i.e., Breeding Biology Research and Monitoring Database), or individual contributions are combined to build a database of information across a species range (i.e., NestWatch). More recent methods like the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship program, use passive netting to sample common species within an area, and do not target any individual species.